Electromagnetic clutches are designed to transmit and cut off power on the driven side with an electromagnetic force. They can disconnect and connect power without actually stopping the power and are the most common type of electromechanical clutches. Servo2Go is an electromagnetic clutch supplier offering EM clutches from Inertia Dynamics. Get in touch with us today if you have any questions.
Types of Electromagnetic Clutches
- Multiple Disk Clutches: multiple disk clutches are used to deliver extremely high torque in relatively small spaces. They can be used dry or wet, making them perfectly suited for multiple speed gear boxes and machine tool applications.
- Electromagnetic Tooth Clutches: electromagnetic tooth clutches provide the greatest amount of torque in the smallest overall size. Because torque is transmitted without any slippage, they are ideal for multi-stage machines where timing is critical. They should not, however, be used in high speed applications.
- Electromagnetic Particle Clutches: electromagnetic particle clutches have a unique design to the wide operating torque range they provide. As with standard, single face clutches, torque to voltage is almost linear. These clutches can be controlled very accurately and are ideal for tension control applications, as well as high cycle applications.
- Hysteresis-Powered Clutches: hysteresis-powered clutches over an extremely high torque range and can also be controlled remotely. They offer the widest available torque range of an electromagnetic product due to minimal drag torque. They are ideal for testing applications where varying torque is needed. Additionally, because all torque is transmitted magnetically, there is no contact, no wear to any of the torque transfer components, leading to a long lifespan.
- Power-on Clutches: used to couple two parallel shafts. The armature hub assembly is mounted to the same shaft as the rotor assembly. The armature hub accommodates a pulley, gear, sprocket, etc., to transmit torque to the second shaft. The field assembly is mounted on the shaft and retained by a loose fitting pin or bracket through the anti-rotation tab.
Engagement: How it Works
The operation of electromagnetic clutches is a fascinating example of how electrical energy can be converted into mechanical motion, all driven by the fundamental principles of electromagnetism. The clutch operates by using an electrically-activated coil to create a magnetic field, which then leads to mechanical torque transmission. When it's time for the clutch to engage, a voltage or current is applied to the coil. As a result, the coil becomes magnetized, generating magnetic lines of flux. This flux traverses the air gap between the field (also known as the clutch's stator or yoke) and the rotor (or input hub), magnetizing the rotor in the process.
This action creates a magnetic loop, which has the effect of attracting the armature (a disk connected to the output shaft) towards the rotor. The armature is pulled against the rotor, and a frictional force comes into play at their point of contact. The effect of this frictional force is to accelerate the load, allowing it to match the speed of the rotor. Consequently, the armature and the output hub of the clutch become effectively engaged. This process is highly efficient and provides precise control, making electromagnetic clutches an essential component in various industrial machinery and systems where accurate torque control is required.
Disengagement: How it Works
Disengagement in an electromagnetic clutch is just as crucial as engagement and it operates on a relatively straightforward principle. When the current or voltage applied to the electromagnetic coil is removed or cut off, the magnetic field collapses and the magnetic attraction between the armature and the rotor ceases. With this magnetic attraction no longer in play, the armature is no longer drawn to the rotor and is free to rotate independently with the shaft to which it is attached.
In most electromagnetic clutch designs, springs are integrated to facilitate this disengagement process. These springs are strategically positioned to hold the armature slightly away from the rotor when the power is cut off. The function of these springs is to generate an air gap between the armature and the rotor when the clutch is not engaged. This air gap is crucial as it ensures there is no contact and thus no frictional force between the rotor and the armature when the clutch is disengaged. This ensures the smooth functioning of the clutch and contributes to its longevity, as unnecessary friction can lead to wear and tear over time. In a nutshell, the disengagement process in an electromagnetic clutch allows for precise control over the start and stop of mechanical motion, contributing to efficient operation in various applications.
Below you will find additional information regarding Inertia Dynamic electromagnetic clutches. Get a quote today!